Internet Dictionary IV
packet A unit of data of standardized size, into which information is divided for transmission over a network. Each of the packets that comprise a message travels the internetwork independently; the message is reassembled from its component packets at the destination.
packet filter firewall A firewall that examines all data flowing back and forth between a trusted network and the Internet.
A message delivery technique in which information is broken down into small
units (packets) and then relayed through stations in a computer network along
the best route available between the source and the destination.
This method is used to move data around on the Internet. In packet switching,
all the data coming out of a machine is broken up into chunks, each chunk
has the address of where it came from and where it is going. This enables chunks
of data from many different sources to co-mingle on the same lines, and be
sorted and directed along different routes by special machines along the way.
This way many people can use the same lines at the same time.
page view Also called a page impression. Hit to HTML-viewable pages only (.htm, .html, .doc, .txt, .asp, .jsp, and .cfm, for example)
Password A code used to gain access (login) to a locked system. Good passwords contain
letters and non-letters and are not simple combinations such as virtue7. A good
password might be:
patch A small piece of code designed to correct a software bug.
PCMCIA, PCMCIA card (Personal Computer Memory Card International Association) Credit card-sized plug-in boards for laptop and other computers. PCMCIA cards are used to add LAN adapters, modems, memory, storage and more.
PEM (Privacy Enhanced Mail) A encryption standard generally used to secure Internet mail.
permission marketing A marketing strategy that sends specific information only to persons who have indicated an interest in receiving information about the product or service being promoted.
persistent cookie A cookie that exists indefinitely (most cookies have built-in expiration dates).
personal information number (PIN) A random assemblage of digits, chosen by the customer, that serves as a password for monetary transactions.
plain old telephone service (POTS) The network connecting telephones; it provides a reliable data transmission bandwidth of about 56Kbps.
plug-in A (usually small) piece of software that adds features to a larger piece of software. An application that helps a browser to experience information (such as video or animation or sound) but that is not part of the browser itself. Common examples are plug-ins for the Netscape® browser and web server. Adobe Photoshop® also uses plug-ins.
(Post Office Protocol) Makes
available client-server e-mail messaging. Two commonly used meanings:
Point of Presence and Post Office Protocol.
POP (Point of Presence) Used in the context of telecommunications between companies and ISPs.
(Point-to-Point Protocol) One way
computers can communicate with each other over the Internet (compare "SLIP").
PPP connections let you communicate directly with other computers on the network
using TCP/IP connections. The most common protocol used to connect home computers to the Internet over
regular phone lines.
3 meanings. . First and most generally,
A point of I/O access to a computer or system, a place where information goes into or out
of a computer, or both. E.g. the serial port on a personal computer is where a
modem would be connected.
portal A Web site that serves as a customizable home base from which users do their searching, navigating, and other Web-based activity (such as www.msn.com). Usually used as a marketing term to described a Web site that is or is intended to be the first place people see when using the Web. Typically a "Portal site" has a catalog of web sites, a search engine, or both. A Portal site may also offer email and other service to entice people to use that site as their main "point of entry" (hence "portal") to the Web.
port number (or port address) To ensure that each server application responds only to requests and communications from appropriate clients, each server is assigned a port address. If IP addresses are like street addresses, then ports can be thought of as apartment or suite numbers.
Posting A single message entered into a network communications system.
private network A private, leased-line connection between two companies that physically links their individual computers or intranets.
protocol An established method of exchanging data over the Internet. The "must follow" regulations that govern the transmission and receipt of information across a data communications link. Languages that computers use to talk to each other. A set of standards that assures that different network products can work together. Any product using a given protocol should work with any other product using the same protocol. Examples of Internet protocols include: telnet, email, news and world wide Web.
proxy server A firewall that communicates with the Internet on behalf of the trusted network. A Proxy Server sits in between a Client and the "real" Server that a Client is trying to use. Client's are sometimes configured to use a Proxy Server, usually an HTTP server. The clients makes all of it's requests from the Proxy Server, which then makes requests from the "real" server and passes the result back to the Client. Sometimes the Proxy server will store the results and give a stored result instead of making a new one (to reduce use of a Network). Proxy servers are commonly established on Local Area Networks
PSTN (Public Switched Telephone Network) The regular old-fashioned telephone system.
Query Synonymous with search expression, which is the key word on which search engines perform searches.
QuickTime A type of video and sound playback format for computers. Developed by Apple Computer, the use of QuickTime has become so widespread that it has become a video standard.
RAM Random Access Memory.
rational branding An advertising strategy that substitutes an offer to help Web users in some way in exchange for their viewing an ad. Rational branding relies on the cognitive appeal of the specific help offered, not on a broad emotional appeal. For example, Web e-mail services such as Excite Mail, HotMail, or Yahoo! Mail give users a valuable service (an e-mail account and storage space for messages) in exchange for advertising on e-mail received and viewed by the user.
Real Audio A software application that lets you hear sound (as it occurs) over the Web.
registrar An official Web domain name registration service.
referrer (or referring page) URL of an HTML page that refers visitors to another Web site.
relevance feedback Documents retrieved in a search that are used to further refine the search.
Remote Refers to something that is on a server, not on your local machine.
response time The amount of time a server requires to process one request.
return code (success code, fail code) A Web log file records whether a request to the Web server for delivery of data was successful or not, and why.
ripper Software that stores music in digital format on a computer.
ripping The act of extracting a track from a music CD and storing it in digital format on a computer.
RFC (Request for Comments) The documents that contain the standards and other information for the TCP/IP protocols and the Internet in general. They can be found at several sites through anonymous FTP. The name of the result and the process for creating a standard on the Internet. New standards are proposed and published on the Internet, as a Request For Comments. The proposal is reviewed by the Internet Engineering Task Force (http://www.ietf.org/), a consensus-building body that facilitates discussion, and eventuallya new standard is established, but the reference number/name for the standard retains the acronym RFC, e.g. the official standard for e-mail message formats is RFC 822.
A computer that determines the best way for data packets to move forward to
their destination. A special-purpose computer (or software package) that handles the connection
between 2 or more Packet-Switched networks. Routers spend all their time looking
at the source and destination addresses of the packets passing through them and
deciding which route to send them on.
routing The process of locating the most efficient or effective pathway through a network to a destination computer. Routing is commonly handled by the network or communication software.
routing algorithm The program used by a router to determine the best path for data packets to travel.
RSA (Rivest, Shamir, Adleman Public Key Encryption) A patented public key (also called dual-key or asymmetric) data encryption scheme that can provide both encryption and authentication.
save area The location on a computer where programs store critical information before control of that information is passed to another program.
scalablity A system's ability to be adapted to meet changing requirements.
scrip Digital cash minted by a small number of third-party organizations.
script A record of keystrokes and commands that can be played back in order to automate routing tasks, such as logging on to an online service.
SCSI (Small Computer System Interface) A method of linking up to 8 disk drives or other devices to a single PC, MAC or other computer workstation.
SDSL -- (Symmetric Digital Subscriber Line) A version of DSL where the upload speeds and download speeds are the same.
search engine A WWW utility
site that serves as an index to other sites on the Web. Some of the more popular
search engines are "Starting Point", "Yahoo", and "Lycos". Search engines are
relatively easy to use. Normally, they contain references to common subject
areas that you can point-and-click to connect to other links, that
connect to other links, and so on. They also give you the opportunity to type in
key words (by themselves, or in combination) to begin a search. Click
here for an
example of how a search works. A (usually web-based) system for searching the information available on the Web.
search expression The key word on which search engines perform searches, which can include instructions telling the search engine how to perform its search.
secure electronic transaction (SET) A secure protocol that provides security for card payments as the traverse the Internet between merchant sites and processing banks.
secure envelope A security utility that encapsulates a message and provides secrecy, integrity, and client/server authentication.
secure sockets layer See SSL.
Security Certificate A chunk of information (often stored as a text file) that is used by the SSL protocol to establish a secure connection.
self hosting A system of Web hosting in which the online business owns and maintains the server and all its software.
(1) A computer
that hosts and delivers information to those accessing the Internet or an
internal intranet. (2) A computer or computer
application that delivers or routes information to other computers on a network
(mail servers, Web servers, and database servers for example).
(3) A computer or device on a network that manages network resources
(file server, print server, etc.). A computer, or a software package, that provides a specific kind of service to
client software running on other computers. The term can refer to a particular
piece of software, such as a WWW server, or to the machine on which the software
is running, e.g. "Our mail server is down today, that's why e-mail isn't getting
server error An error occurring on the server. See return code.
server side include (SSI) A type of HTML comment that directs the Web server to dynamically generate data for a Web page when it is requested.
service provider (or Internet Service Provider, ISP) A business that provides connections to a part of the Internet.
session cookie A cookie that exists only until you shut down your browser.
session key A key used by an encryption algorithm to create cipher text from plain text during a single secure session.
shared hosting A Web hosting arrangement in which a corporate Web site is on a server that hosts other Web sites simultaneously and is controlled by a third-party service provider.
shareware Software that is sold by individuals or companies for a nominal fee (compare "freeware"). Typically the software is downloaded and tried out before buying and registering it.
shell account An entry-level Internet access account. Instead of linking your computer directly to the Internet, you use your modem to dial in to an Internet-connect host computer operated by an Internet service provider (ISP).
shopping cart An electronic commerce utility that keeps track of selected items for purchase and automates the purchasing process. A list of items a customer wants to purchase from an online storefront. Shopping cart software allows customers on an electronic commerce Web site to select items they wish to purchase and store them in their virtual shopping cart. Customers can view, add, or delete items in their shopping cart before making their electronic purchase.
signature A 3- or 4-line message, used to identify the sender of an e-mail message or Usenet article, that appears at the end of either communication. (Signatures longer than 5 lines are generally frowned upon, and should be avoided).
signed java applet A java applet that contains an embedded digital signature from a trusted third party; it is proof of the identity of the applet's source.
signed message or code A message or Web page that contains an attached digital certificate.
skin, skins A "skin" is a digital, interchangeable cover (or face plate) used to alter the appearance of those MP3 and other multimedia players you open up and run on the computer screen. You can find all the "skins" you want at the following and other locations on the Web:
SLIP (Serial Line Internet Protocol) One way computers can communicate with each other over the Internet (compare "PPP"). SLIP connections let you communicate directly with other computers on the network using TCP/IP connections. A standard for using a regular telephone line (a serial line) and a modem to connect a computer as a realInternet site. SLIP has largely been replaced by PPP.
sniffer program A program that taps into the Internet and records information that passes through a router from the data's source to its destination.
SMDS (Switched Multimegabit Data Service) A standard for very high-speed data transfer.
(Simple Mail Transfer Protocol)
Set of explicit steps that must be used by one Internet computer to connect to
another computer to transmit a message to its next stop. The standard protocol
on the Internet for transferring electronic mail messages (server to server
or Client) on the
Internet. This is the set of instructions which allow a machine to act as a Post
Office for a group of users. If the machine is on the Internet, it can
communicate with other Post Offices using this protocol. End user electronic
mail (email) is sent using Post Office Protocol to SMTP hosts which sort and
store the information for users who have accounts (User Name) on that machine. (See also POP).
(Simple Network Management Protocol) A set of standards for communication with devices connected to a TCP/IP network.
Examples of these devices include routers, hubs, and switches.
spam Term used to describe the process of flooding the Internet with unsolicited e-Mail. Not considered good etiquette. An inappropriate attempt to use a mailing list, or USENET or other networked communications facility as if it was a broadcast medium (which it is not) by sending the same message to a large number of people who didn't ask for it. The term probably comes from a famous Monty Python skit which featured the word spam repeated over and over. The term may also have come from someone's low opinion of the food product with the same name, which is generally perceived as a generic content-free waste of resources. (Spam® is a registered trademark of Hormel Corporation, for its processed meat product.)
spoofing The fraudulent practice of masquerading as someone else, usually with malicious intent, and usually for profit or gain. To send email disguised as someone else, or as an established business when in fact you do not legally represent that business. To misrepresent a Web site as original when it is not. Compare name changing.
(Structured Query Language)
Pronounce it "see-quell" (not "S - Q - L") if you want to get any respect at all
from programmers. A standardized language that is used to define and manipulate
data in a database server. SQL is a standardized query language for requesting
information from a database. The original version called SEQUEL (structured
English query language) was designed by an IBM research center in 1974 and 1975.
Oracle Corporation first introduced SQL as a commercial database system in 1979.
SQL is used to extract specified data from a relational database.
It's a specialized language for sending queries to databases. Most
industrial-strength and many smaller database applications can be addressed
using SQL. Each specific application will have its own slightly different
version of SQL implementing features unique to that application, but all
SQL-capable databases support a common subset of SQL.
SRI A research institute, based in California, that runs the Network Information Systems Center.
SSI (Server-Side Includes)
SSL (Secure Sockets Layer) SSL is a technology that provides security for Web site transactions. SSL handles authentication and data encryption between a Web browser and a Web server. Most electronic commerce applications on the Web use SSL. A protocol designed by Netscape Communications to enable encrypted, authenticated communications across the Internet. An open protocol for securing data communications across computer networks. The broad support for this protocol will promote interoperability between products from many organizations and will speed the growth of electronic commerce on the Internet and private TCP/IP networks.
standard general markup language (SGML) A computer language used to mark up documents independent of any software application; it contains an international standard that defines methods for representing electronic documents. SGML is the basis for HTML.
static page A Web page that displays unchanging information. Compare dynamic HTML.
stickiness The ability of a Web site to keep visitors at its site and to attract repeat visitors.
streaming media Streaming media is a continuous broadcast of audio or video files over the Internet made possible through the use of three software packages: the encoder, the server and the player. The encoder digitizes and compresses the media and converts it into a streaming format, the server makes the content available over the Internet, and the player retrieves and plays the content as it is received. Because the content is continually streamed to the user, there is no delay for download and no file to take up space on the hard drive. Examples of streaming media content are: MP3, WMA, Real Media, QuickTime and Clipstream.
subscription The delivery of specific information to a user's computer. Users provide information about what information to deliver, amount of information, and schedule for updates. More specific than a channel.
switched access A network connection that can be created and eliminated as necessary.
Sysop (System Operator) Anyone responsible for the physical operations of a computer system or network resource. For example, a System Administrator decides how often backups and maintenance should be performed and the System Operator performs those tasks.
systems administrator A member of an electronic commerce team who understands the server hardware and software and is responsible for the system's reliable and secure operation.
T-1 leased line High-speed digital lines that provide data communication speeds of 1.544 megabits (T-1) and 45 megabits (T-3) per second. Compare 56K and ISDN lines. A T-1 line actually consists of 24 individual channels, each of which supports 64Kbits per second. Each 64Kbit/second channel can be configured to carry voice or data traffic. Most telephone companies allow you to buy just some of these individual channels, known as fractional T-1 access. See bandwidth. A leased-line connection capable of carrying data at 1,544,000 bits-per-second. At maximum theoretical capacity, a T-1 line could move a megabyte in less than 10 seconds. That is still not fast enough for full-screen, full-motion video, for which you need at least 10,000,000 bits-per-second. T-1 lines are commonly used to connect large LANs to the Internet.
T-3 leased line An incredibly fast digital connection that operates at 44.736 Mbps. See bandwidth. A leased-line connection capable of carrying data at 44,736,000 bits-per-second. This is more than enough to do full-screen, full-motion video.
tags HTML codes inserted into documents that specify formatting and arrangement of page elements.
TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) A set of protocols used on the Internet. This includes SLIP and PPP. A language governing communication between all computers on the Internet. TCP/IP is a set of instructions that dictates how packets of information are sent across multiple networks. Also included is a built-in error-checking capability. This is the suite of protocols that defines the Internet. Originally designed for the UNIX operating system, TCP/IP software is now included with every major kind of computer operating system. To be truly on the Internet, your computer must have TCP/IP software.
Telnet A program that lets you log onto a remote computer. The command and program used to login from one Internet siteto another. The telnet command/program gets you to the login: prompt of another host. Also, the name of the program implementing the protocol.
Terminal A device that allows you to send commands to a computer somewhere else. At a
minimum, this usually means a keyboard and a display screen and some simple
circuitry. Usually you will use terminal software in a personal computer - the
software pretends to be (emulates) a physical terminal and allows you to type
commands to a computer somewhere else.
terminal emulation A technique in which one computer imitates a terminal while communicating with another computer, such as a mainframe, by using special software.
thin client The relatively low workload of a Web client, compared with that of a server.
thrash or thrashing To move wildly or violently, without accomplishing anything useful. Paging or swapping systems that are overloaded waste most of their time moving data into and out of core (rather than performing useful computation) and are therefore said to "thrash". Thrashing can also occur in a cache due to cache conflict or in a multiprocessor. Someone who keeps changing his mind (especially about what to work on next) is said to be thrashing. A person frantically trying to execute too many tasks at once (and not spending enough time on any single task) may also be described as thrashing.
thread A message and its responses in a newsgroup. Together, threads form a conversation of sorts as people add responses, or they may start a new message, which, in turn, will have its own "thread" of responses.
threat An act of object that poses a danger to assets.
throughput The number of HTTP requests that a particular hardware and software combination can process in a unit of time.
timeout What occurs when one computer fails to respond to another within a predetermined interval during a conversation.
tn3270 A version of Telnet software that allows connection to IBM mainframes by emulating the widely used IBM 3270 family of terminals.
token ring One of several combinations of electrical, packet-format, and procedural specifications used for transmitting information over a medium.
Traffic A measure of the quantity of data transferred from one computer to another computer per unit of time. Traffic is normally measured in megabytes (MB). For billing purposes, traffic is normally quoted in MB per month. Traffic is one of the variables by which most Web hosting companies charge their customers.
trojan horse A program hidden inside another program or Web page that masks its true purpose (usually destructive).
trusted network A network that is within a firewall.
trusted applet A java applet that has full access to system resources on a client computer.
two-sided tags HTML tags that require both an opening and a closing tag (<BODY> for example).
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