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Internet Dictionary IV



Internet Dictionary Part I
Internet Dictionary Part II

Internet Dictionary Part III

Internet Dictionary Part IV

Internet Dictionary Part V



packet  A unit of data of standardized size, into which information is divided for transmission over a network. Each of the packets that comprise a message travels the internetwork independently; the message is reassembled from its component packets at the destination.

packet filter firewall  A firewall that examines all data flowing back and forth between a trusted network and the Internet.

packet switching  A message delivery technique in which information is broken down into small units (packets) and then relayed through stations in a computer network along the best route available between the source and the destination. This method is used to move data around on the Internet. In packet switching, all the data coming out of a machine is broken up into chunks, each chunk has the address of where it came from and where it is going. This enables chunks of data from many different sources to co-mingle on the same lines, and be sorted and directed along different routes by special machines along the way. This way many people can use the same lines at the same time.
You might think of several caravans of trucks all using the same road system. to carry materials.

page view  Also called a page impression. Hit to HTML-viewable pages only (.htm, .html, .doc, .txt, .asp, .jsp, and .cfm, for example)

Password  A code used to gain access (login) to a locked system. Good passwords contain letters and non-letters and are not simple combinations such as virtue7. A good password might be:
5%df(29). But don't use that one!

patch  A small piece of code designed to correct a software bug.

path through site  The page-to-page course (path) a visitor takes through a Web site from the entry page to the exit page.  See entry page and exit page.

PCMCIA, PCMCIA card  (Personal Computer Memory Card International Association)  Credit card-sized plug-in boards for laptop and other computers.  PCMCIA cards are used to add LAN adapters, modems, memory, storage and more.

PEM  (Privacy Enhanced Mail)  A encryption standard generally used to secure Internet mail.

permission marketing  A marketing strategy that sends specific information only to persons who have indicated an interest in receiving information about the product or service being promoted.

persistent cookie  A cookie that exists indefinitely (most cookies have built-in expiration dates).

personal information number  (PIN)  A random assemblage of digits, chosen by the customer, that serves as a password for monetary transactions.

ping  A diagnostic utility that determines whether a remote computer is active and where it can be contacted.  See domain name lookup.

plain old telephone service  (POTS)  The network connecting telephones; it provides a reliable data transmission bandwidth of about 56Kbps.

plug-in  A (usually small) piece of software that adds features to a larger piece of software. An application that helps a browser to experience information (such as video or animation or sound) but that is not part of the browser itself. Common examples are plug-ins for the Netscape® browser and web server. Adobe Photoshop® also uses plug-ins.

POP (Post Office Protocol)  Makes available client-server e-mail messaging. Two commonly used meanings: Point of Presence and Post Office Protocol.
A Point of Presence usually means a city or location where a network can be connected to, often with dial up phone lines. So if an Internet company says they will soon have a POP in Belgrade, it means that they will soon have a local phone number in Belgrade and/or a place where leased lines can connect to their network.
A second meaning, Post Office Protocol refers to a way that e-mail client software such as Eudora gets mail from a mail server. When you obtain an account from an Internet Service Provider (ISP) you almost always get a POP account with it, and it is this POP account that you tell your e-mail software to use to get your mail. Another protocol called IMAP is replacing POP for email. The protocol requires a receiving machine, designated the SMTP host, from which users have accounts. These accounts are actually holding directories for mail addressed to end users. The portion of your email address in front of the "at" sign is your end user address and the portion after the "at" sign is the internet location of the SMTP host. (See also SMTP).

POP  (Point of Presence)  Used in the context of telecommunications between companies and ISPs.

PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol)  One way computers can communicate with each other over the Internet (compare "SLIP"). PPP connections let you communicate directly with other computers on the network using TCP/IP connections. The most common protocol used to connect home computers to the Internet over regular phone lines.
Most well known as a protocol that allows a computer to use a regular telephone line and a modem to make TCP/IP connections and thus be really and truly on the Internet.

port   3 meanings. . First and most generally, A point of I/O access to a computer or system, a place where information goes into or out of a computer, or both. E.g. the serial port on a personal computer is where a modem would be connected.
On the Internet port often refers to a number that is part of a URL, appearing after a colon (:) right after the domain name. Every service on an Internet server listens on a particular port number on that server. Most services have standard port numbers, e.g. Web servers normally listen on port 80. Services can also listen on non-standard ports, in which case the port number must be specified in a URL when accessing the server, so you might see a URL of the form:

This shows a gopher server running on a non-standard port (the standard gopher port is 70).
Finally, port also refers to translating a piece of software to bring it from one type of computer system to another, e.g. to translate a Windows program so that is will run on a Macintosh.
Also, to convert a program from one platform to run on another (e.g., from Unix to MS-DOS or MacOS).

portal  A Web site that serves as a customizable home base from which users do their searching, navigating, and other Web-based activity (such as www.msn.com). Usually used as a marketing term to described a Web site that is or is intended to be the first place people see when using the Web. Typically a "Portal site" has a catalog of web sites, a search engine, or both. A Portal site may also offer email and other service to entice people to use that site as their main "point of entry" (hence "portal") to the Web.

port number  (or port address)  To ensure that each server application responds only to requests and communications from appropriate clients, each server is assigned a port address. If IP addresses are like street addresses, then ports can be thought of as apartment or suite numbers.


Common IP Port Addresses


FTP (File Transfer Protocol)
FTP (File Transfer Protocol)
SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol)
DNS (Domain Name Server)
HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol)
Remote Telnet Service
POP2 (Post Office Protocol version 2)
POP3 (Post Office Protocol version 3)
NNTP (Network News Transfer Protocol)
WINS (Windows Internet Naming Service)
IMAP4 (Interactive Mail Access Protocol 4)
IRC (Internet Relay Chat)
IMAP3 (Interactive Mail Access Protocol 3)
LDAP (Lightweight Directory Access Protocol)
HTTPS (HTTP running over secure sockets)


Posting   A single message entered into a network communications system.

private key  A single key that is used to encrypt and decrypt messages.  Synonymous with symmetric key.  Compare public key.

private network  A private, leased-line connection between two companies that physically links their individual computers or intranets.

protocol  An established method of exchanging data over the Internet. The "must follow" regulations that govern the transmission and receipt of information across a data communications link. Languages that computers use to talk to each other. A set of standards that assures that different network products can work together. Any product using a given protocol should work with any other product using the same protocol.  Examples of Internet protocols include:  telnet, email, news and world wide Web.

proxy server  A firewall that communicates with the Internet on behalf of the trusted network. A Proxy Server sits in between a Client and the "real" Server that a Client is trying to use. Client's are sometimes configured to use a Proxy Server, usually an HTTP server. The clients makes all of it's requests from the Proxy Server, which then makes requests from the "real" server and passes the result back to the Client. Sometimes the Proxy server will store the results and give a stored result instead of making a new one (to reduce use of a Network). Proxy servers are commonly established on Local Area Networks

PSTN  (Public Switched Telephone Network)   The regular old-fashioned telephone system.

public key  One of a pair of mathematically related numeric keys, it is used to encrypt messages and is freely distributed to the public.  Compare private key.

To upload your Web pages to a Web server, thus making them available to others across the Web.


Query  Synonymous with search expression, which is the key word on which search engines perform searches.

QuickTime  A type of video and sound playback format for computers. Developed by Apple Computer, the use of QuickTime has become so widespread that it has become a video standard.


RAM  Random Access Memory.

rational branding  An advertising strategy that substitutes an offer to help Web users in some way in exchange for their viewing an ad.  Rational branding relies on the cognitive appeal of the specific help offered, not on a broad emotional appeal.  For example, Web e-mail services such as Excite Mail, HotMail, or Yahoo! Mail give users a valuable service (an e-mail account and storage space for messages) in exchange for advertising on e-mail received and viewed by the user.

Real Audio A software application that lets you hear sound (as it occurs) over the Web.

registrar  An official Web domain name registration service.

referrer  (or referring page)  URL of an HTML page that refers visitors to another Web site.

relevance feedback  Documents retrieved in a search that are used to further refine the search.

Remote  Refers to something that is on a server, not on your local machine.

response time  The amount of time a server requires to process one request.

return code  (success code, fail code)  A Web log file records whether a request to the Web server for delivery of data was successful or not, and why.  

Possible "Success" codes are:

200 = Success:  OK
201 = Success:  Created
202 = Success:  Accepted
203 = Success:  Partial Information
204 = Success:  No Response
300 = Success:  Redirected
301 = Success:  Moved
302 = Success:  Found
303 = Success:  New Method
304 = Success:  Not Modified

Possible "Failed" codes are:

400 = Failed:  Bad Request
401 = Failed:  Unauthorized
402 = Failed:  Payment Required
403 = Failed:  Forbidden
404 = Failed:  Not Found
500 = Failed:  Internal Error
501 = Failed:  Not Implemented
502 = Failed:  Overloaded Temporarily
503 = Failed:  Gateway Timeout

ripper Software that stores music in digital format on a computer.

ripping  The act of extracting a track from a music CD and storing it in digital format on a computer. 

RFC (Request for Comments)  The documents that contain the standards and other information for the TCP/IP protocols and the Internet in general. They can be found at several sites through anonymous FTP. The name of the result and the process for creating a standard on the Internet. New standards are proposed and published on the Internet, as a Request For Comments. The proposal is reviewed by the Internet Engineering Task Force (http://www.ietf.org/), a consensus-building body that facilitates discussion, and eventuallya new standard is established, but the reference number/name for the standard retains the acronym RFC, e.g. the official standard for e-mail message formats is RFC 822.

router  A computer that determines the best way for data packets to move forward to their destination. A special-purpose computer (or software package) that handles the connection between 2 or more Packet-Switched networks. Routers spend all their time looking at the source and destination addresses of the packets passing through them and deciding which route to send them on.
See also: Network, Packet Switching

routing  The process of locating the most efficient or effective pathway through a network to a destination computer. Routing is commonly handled by the network or communication software.

routing algorithm  The program used by a router to determine the best path for data packets to travel.

RSA  (Rivest, Shamir, Adleman Public Key Encryption)  A patented public key (also called dual-key or asymmetric) data encryption scheme that can provide both encryption and authentication.


save area The location on a computer where programs store critical information before control of that information is passed to another program.

scalablity  A system's ability to be adapted to meet changing requirements.

scrip  Digital cash minted by a small number of third-party organizations.

script A record of keystrokes and commands that can be played back in order to automate routing tasks, such as logging on to an online service.

SCSI  (Small Computer System Interface)  A method of linking up to 8 disk drives or other devices to a single PC, MAC or other computer workstation.

SDSL -- (Symmetric Digital Subscriber Line)  A version of DSL where the upload speeds and download speeds are the same.

search engine A WWW utility site that serves as an index to other sites on the Web. Some of the more popular search engines are "Starting Point", "Yahoo", and "Lycos". Search engines are relatively easy to use. Normally, they contain references to common subject areas that you can point-and-click to connect to other links, that connect to other links, and so on. They also give you the opportunity to type in key words (by themselves, or in combination) to begin a search. Click here for an example of how a search works. A (usually web-based) system for searching the information available on the Web.
Some search engines work by automatically searching the contents of other systems and creating a database of the results. other search engines contains only material manually approved for inclusion in a database, and some combine the two approaches.

search expression  The key word on which search engines perform searches, which can include instructions telling the search engine how to perform its search.

secure electronic transaction  (SET)  A secure protocol that provides security for card payments as the traverse the Internet between merchant sites and processing banks.

secure envelope  A security utility that encapsulates a message and provides secrecy, integrity, and client/server authentication.

secure sockets layer  See SSL.

Security Certificate   A chunk of information (often stored as a text file) that is used by the SSL protocol to establish a secure connection.

self hosting  A system of Web hosting in which the online business owns and maintains the server and all its software.

server  (1) A computer that hosts and delivers information to those accessing the Internet or an internal intranet.  (2) A computer or computer application that delivers or routes information to other computers on a network (mail servers, Web servers, and database servers for example).  (3) A computer or device on a network that manages network resources (file server, print server, etc.). A computer, or a software package, that provides a specific kind of service to client software running on other computers. The term can refer to a particular piece of software, such as a WWW server, or to the machine on which the software is running, e.g. "Our mail server is down today, that's why e-mail isn't getting out."
It'sa fast, high-power computer that is used as the repository and distributor of data, and to control various applications such as e-mail. Servers can be used for a variety of applications including hosting Web sites, e-mail databases, and other types of database applications. A single server machine can (and often does) have several different server software packages running on it, thus providing many different servers to clients on the network.

server error  An error occurring on the server.  See return code.

server side include  (SSI)  A type of HTML comment that directs the Web server to dynamically generate data for a Web page when it is requested.

service provider  (or Internet Service Provider, ISP)  A business that provides connections to a part of the Internet.

session cookie  A cookie that exists only until you shut down your browser.

session key  A key used by an encryption algorithm to create cipher text from plain text during a single secure session.

shared hosting  A Web hosting arrangement in which a corporate Web site is on a server that hosts other Web sites simultaneously and is controlled by a third-party service provider.

shareware Software that is sold by individuals or companies for a nominal fee (compare "freeware"). Typically the software is downloaded and tried out before buying and registering it.

shell account An entry-level Internet access account. Instead of linking your computer directly to the Internet, you use your modem to dial in to an Internet-connect host computer operated by an Internet service provider (ISP).

shopping cart An electronic commerce utility that keeps track of selected items for purchase and automates the purchasing process. A list of items a customer wants to purchase from an online storefront. Shopping cart software allows customers on an electronic commerce Web site to select items they wish to purchase and store them in their virtual shopping cart. Customers can view, add, or delete items in their shopping cart before making their electronic purchase.

signature  A 3- or 4-line message, used to identify the sender of an e-mail message or Usenet article, that appears at the end of either communication. (Signatures longer than 5 lines are generally frowned upon, and should be avoided).

signed java applet  A java applet that contains an embedded digital signature from a trusted third party; it is proof of the identity of the applet's source.

signed message or code  A  message or Web page that contains an attached digital certificate.

skin, skins   A "skin" is a digital, interchangeable cover (or face plate) used to alter the appearance of those MP3 and other multimedia players you open up and run on the computer screen.  You can find all the "skins" you want at the following and other locations on the Web:

SLIP (Serial Line Internet Protocol)  One way computers can communicate with each other over the Internet (compare "PPP"). SLIP connections let you communicate directly with other computers on the network using TCP/IP connections. A standard for using a regular telephone line (a serial line) and a modem to connect a computer as a realInternet site. SLIP has largely been replaced by PPP.

sniffer program  A program that taps into the Internet and records information that passes through a router from the data's source to its destination.

SMDS  (Switched Multimegabit Data Service) A standard for very high-speed data transfer.

SMTP  (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol)  Set of explicit steps that must be used by one Internet computer to connect to another computer to transmit a message to its next stop. The standard protocol on the Internet for transferring electronic mail messages (server to server or Client) on the Internet. This is the set of instructions which allow a machine to act as a Post Office for a group of users. If the machine is on the Internet, it can communicate with other Post Offices using this protocol. End user electronic mail (email) is sent using Post Office Protocol to SMTP hosts which sort and store the information for users who have accounts (User Name) on that machine. (See also POP).
SMTP is defined in RFC 821 and modified by many later RFC's

SNMP  (Simple Network Management Protocol) A set of standards for communication with devices connected to a TCP/IP network. Examples of these devices include routers, hubs, and switches.
SNMP is defined in RFC 1089

spam  Term used to describe the process of flooding the Internet with unsolicited e-Mail.  Not considered good etiquette.  An inappropriate attempt to use a mailing list, or USENET or other networked communications facility as if it was a broadcast medium (which it is not) by sending the same message to a large number of people who didn't ask for it. The term probably comes from a famous Monty Python skit which featured the word spam repeated over and over. The term may also have come from someone's low opinion of the food product with the same name, which is generally perceived as a generic content-free waste of resources. (Spam® is a registered trademark of Hormel Corporation, for its processed meat product.)

spider  An automated program which searches the internet.  See bot.

spoofing  The fraudulent practice of masquerading as someone else, usually with malicious intent, and usually for profit or gain.  To send email disguised as someone else, or as an established business when in fact you do not legally represent that business.  To misrepresent a Web site as original when it is not.  Compare name changing.

SQL (Structured Query Language)  Pronounce it "see-quell" (not "S - Q - L") if you want to get any respect at all from programmers. A standardized language that is used to define and manipulate data in a database server. SQL is a standardized query language for requesting information from a database. The original version called SEQUEL (structured English query language) was designed by an IBM research center in 1974 and 1975. Oracle Corporation first introduced SQL as a commercial database system in 1979. SQL is used to extract specified data from a relational database. It's a specialized language for sending queries to databases. Most industrial-strength and many smaller database applications can be addressed using SQL. Each specific application will have its own slightly different version of SQL implementing features unique to that application, but all SQL-capable databases support a common subset of SQL.
A example of an SQl statement is:
SELECT name,email FROM people_table WHERE contry='uk'

SRI  A research institute, based in California, that runs the Network Information Systems Center.

SSI  (Server-Side Includes)

SSL (Secure Sockets Layer)  SSL is a technology that provides security for Web site transactions. SSL handles authentication and data encryption between a Web browser and a Web server. Most electronic commerce applications on the Web use SSL. A protocol designed by Netscape Communications to enable encrypted, authenticated communications across the Internet. An open protocol for securing data communications across computer networks. The broad support for this protocol will promote interoperability between products from many organizations and will speed the growth of electronic commerce on the Internet and private TCP/IP networks.

standard general markup language  (SGML)  A computer language used to mark up documents independent of any software application; it contains an international standard that defines methods for representing electronic documents.  SGML is the basis for HTML.

static page  A Web page that displays unchanging information.  Compare dynamic HTML.

stickiness  The ability of a Web site to keep visitors at its site and to attract repeat visitors.

streaming media  Streaming media is a continuous broadcast of audio or video files over the Internet made possible through the use of three software packages: the encoder, the server and the player. The encoder digitizes and compresses the media and converts it into a streaming format, the server makes the content available over the Internet, and the player retrieves and plays the content as it is received. Because the content is continually streamed to the user, there is no delay for download and no file to take up space on the hard drive. Examples of streaming media content are: MP3, WMA, Real Media, QuickTime and Clipstream.


subscription  The delivery of specific information to a user's computer.  Users provide information about what information to deliver, amount of information, and schedule for updates.  More specific than a channel.

suffix  The three character end of a domain name (i.e. .com) used to identify the type of organization.  See DNS and top-level domain.

switched access  A network connection that can be created and eliminated as necessary.

Sysop  (System Operator) Anyone responsible for the physical operations of a computer system or network resource. For example, a System Administrator decides how often backups and maintenance should be performed and the System Operator performs those tasks.

systems administrator  A member of an electronic commerce team who understands the server hardware and software and is responsible for the system's reliable and secure operation.


T-1 leased line  High-speed digital lines that provide data communication speeds of 1.544 megabits (T-1) and 45 megabits (T-3) per second. Compare 56K and ISDN lines.  A T-1 line actually consists of 24 individual channels, each of which supports 64Kbits per second. Each 64Kbit/second channel can be configured to carry voice or data traffic. Most telephone companies allow you to buy just some of these individual channels, known as fractional T-1 access.  See bandwidth. A leased-line connection capable of carrying data at 1,544,000 bits-per-second. At maximum theoretical capacity, a T-1 line could move a megabyte in less than 10 seconds. That is still not fast enough for full-screen, full-motion video, for which you need at least 10,000,000 bits-per-second. T-1 lines are commonly used to connect large LANs to the Internet.

T-3 leased line  An incredibly fast digital connection that operates at 44.736 Mbps.  See bandwidth. A leased-line connection capable of carrying data at 44,736,000 bits-per-second. This is more than enough to do full-screen, full-motion video.

tags  HTML codes inserted into documents that specify formatting and arrangement of page elements.

TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol)  A set of protocols used on the Internet. This includes SLIP and PPP. A language governing communication between all computers on the Internet. TCP/IP is a set of instructions that dictates how packets of information are sent across multiple networks. Also included is a built-in error-checking capability. This is the suite of protocols that defines the Internet. Originally designed for the UNIX operating system, TCP/IP software is now included with every major kind of computer operating system. To be truly on the Internet, your computer must have TCP/IP software.

Telnet  A program that lets you log onto a remote computer. The command and program used to login from one Internet siteto another. The telnet command/program gets you to the login: prompt of another host. Also, the name of the program implementing the protocol.

Terminal  A device that allows you to send commands to a computer somewhere else. At a minimum, this usually means a keyboard and a display screen and some simple circuitry. Usually you will use terminal software in a personal computer - the software pretends to be (emulates) a physical terminal and allows you to type commands to a computer somewhere else.

Terminal Server  
A special purpose computer that has places to plug in many modems on one side, and a connection to a LAN or host machine on the other side. Thus the terminal server does the work of answering the calls and passes the connections on to the appropriate node. Most terminal servers can provide PPP or SLIP services if connected to the Internet.

terminal emulation A technique in which one computer imitates a terminal while communicating with another computer, such as a mainframe, by using special software.

thin client  The relatively low workload of a Web client, compared with that of a server.

thrash or thrashing  To move wildly or violently, without accomplishing anything useful. Paging or swapping systems that are overloaded waste most of their time moving data into and out of core (rather than performing useful computation) and are therefore said to "thrash". Thrashing can also occur in a cache due to cache conflict or in a multiprocessor. Someone who keeps changing his mind (especially about what to work on next) is said to be thrashing. A person frantically trying to execute too many tasks at once (and not spending enough time on any single task) may also be described as thrashing.

thread A message and its responses in a newsgroup. Together, threads form a conversation of sorts as people add responses, or they may start a new message, which, in turn, will have its own "thread" of responses.

threat  An act of object that poses a danger to assets.

throughput   The number of HTTP requests that a particular hardware and software combination can process in a unit of time. 

timeout  What occurs when one computer fails to respond to another within a predetermined interval during a conversation.

tn3270  A version of Telnet software that allows connection to IBM mainframes by emulating the widely used IBM 3270 family of terminals.

token ring  One of several combinations of electrical, packet-format, and procedural specifications used for transmitting information over a medium.

top-level domain  The suffix of a domain name is the top-level domain.  A top-level domain is generic (.com, .edu, .net, .museum, .name, etc.) or a country code (.us, .uk, .de, .jp, etc.).  

Traffic  A measure of the quantity of data transferred from one computer to another computer per unit of time. Traffic is normally measured in megabytes (MB). For billing purposes, traffic is normally quoted in MB per month. Traffic is one of the variables by which most Web hosting companies charge their customers.

trojan horse  A program hidden inside another program or Web page that masks its true purpose (usually destructive).

trusted network  A network that is within a firewall.

trusted applet  A java applet that has full access to system resources on a client computer.

two-sided tags  HTML tags that require both an opening and a closing tag (<BODY> for example).


Internet Dictionary Part I
Internet Dictionary Part II

Internet Dictionary Part III

Internet Dictionary Part IV

Internet Dictionary Part V


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