Internet Dictionary III
(Integrated Services Digital Network)
Basically a way to move more data over existing regular phone lines. ISDN is
available to much of the USA and in most markets it is priced very comparably to
standard analog phone circuits. It can provide speeds of roughly 128,000
bits-per-second over regular phone lines. In practice, most people will be
limited to 56,000or 64,000 bits-per-second.
ISO (International Organization for Standardization) An association that has defined a different set of network protocols, known as the ISO/OSI protocols, that are in line to replace those currently in use on the Internet. See also OSI.
ISOC (the Internet Society) A group made up of members who support a worldwide information network. It is also the governing body to which the IAB reports.
ISP (Internet Service Provider) An institution that provides access to the Internet in some form, usually for money. An organization that lets users dial into its computers to connect to its Internet link for a fee. ISPs generally provide only an Internet connection, an electronic mail address, and maybe World Wide Web browsing software. You can use an ISP based in your town that offers an access number in your local calling area, or a national ISP that provides local-access numbers across the country (many of them also offer 1-800 dialing access). You can also connect to the Internet through a commercial online service, such as CompuServe or America Online. With this kind of connection, you get Internet access and the proprietary features offered by the online service, such as chat rooms and searchable databases. Internet access through online services may be more expensive than that obtained through an ISP.
JANET (Joint Academic Network) The academic and research network in the United Kingdom.
Java is a network-friendly programming language invented by Sun Microsystems.
It's a computer language compatible with many
different types of computers and hand-held devices. Web developers write
JAVA applets, small programs written in JAVA, that run on Web pages.
Examples include games such as tic-tac-toe and programs that let you
calculate mortgage interest.
java applet A Java application that runs on a browser.
java sandbox A security model that confines Java applet actions to a security model-defined set of rules.
java servlet An application that runs on a Web server and generates dynamic content.
JDBC (Java Database Connectivity)
(Java Development Kit) A software development package from Sun Microsystems that implements the basic
set of tools needed to write, test and debugJava applications and applets
JPEG, JPG (Joint Photographic Experts Group) The standard name of a commonly used compressed, digitized still image file. JPEG is most commonly mentioned as a format for image files. JPEG format is preferred to the GIF format for photographic images as opposed to line art or simple logo art.
Jughead A program, used in conjunction with gopher, that provides the means to search all of the menu selections within a particular gopher server.
key a number used to encode or decode messages.
knowbot A registered trademark of the Corporation for National Research Initiatives. Knowbots are robots designed to seek out files on the Internet.
knowledge management The intentional collection, classification, and dissemination of information about a company, its products, and its processes.
LAN (Local Area Network) A computer network limited to the immediate area, usually the same building or floor of a building. A group of computers located in a relatively limited area (like an office building) and connected by a communications link that allows them to interact with each other. Many LANs are connected to the Internet.
late outsourcing The hiring of an external company to maintain an electronic commerce site that has been designed and developed by an internal information systems team.
leased line Refers to line such as a telephone line or fiber-optic cable that is rented for exclusive 24-hour, 7-days-a-week use from your location to another location. The highest speed data connections require a leased line. It's dedicated (as opposed to a dial-up) telephone line typically used to link a moderate-sized local network to an Internet Service Provider.
limited edition A trial version of a software program; it can be used for free for a limited time period or for a certain number of uses.
Link These are "hot spots" embedded in text or graphics which display related information when you click on them.
Listserv ® The most common kind of maillist, "Listserv" is a registered trademark of L-Soft international, Inc. Listservs originated on BITNET but they are now common on the Internet. A program that allows users to mass-distribute messages that form conferences, as well as archiving files and messages that can be searched for and retrieved.
Local Site A collection of Web pages that is installed on your local computer.
Local Refers to something that is on your computer, as opposed to on a server.
log file A file created by a Web or proxy server that contains all of the information regarding visitor access and related activity on that server. Sample entries from an Apache Common Log File, (which just happens to be one of the more abbreviated types of Web log file; others, including Apache Extended Common Log File format, contain much more information):
Description of Fields:
logical security The protection of assets using nonphysical means.
The process of identifying yourself to your computer or an online
service. The initial identification procedure to gain access to a system as a
legitimate user. The usual requirements are a valid user name (or user ID) and
logout, logoff The concluding steps for formally ending a session with a system. Physically disconnecting or powering down a terminal does not necessarily result in a logout.
lurking A term used to describe the inactivity of a subscriber who doesn't actively participate in a mailing list or Usenet newsgroup discussions. One who lurks is just listening to the discussion. Lurking is advised for beginners who need to get up to speed on the history, mores, and etiquette of the group.
Lynx A character-based client program for the World Wide Web.
macro virus A virus that is transmitted or contained inside a downloadable file attachment; it can cause damage to a computer and reveal otherwise confidential information.
mail bomb A security attack wherein many people (hundreds or thousands) each send a message to a particular address, exceeding the recipient's allowable mail limit and causing mail systems to malfunction.
mailing list A (usually automated) system that allows people to send e-mail to one address, whereupon their message is copied and sent to all of the other subscribers to the maillist. In this way, people who have many different kinds of e-mail access can participate in discussions together. Electronic discussion groups that link a relatively small group of people together by common interests and that are distributed throughout the Internet via its global e-mail system. If you belong to a mailing list, you receive every message that is posted to that list.
mail server Programs and hardware used to manage and store e-mail over the Internet.
mail reflector A specialized address from which e-mail is automatically forwarded to a set of other addresses, commonly used to implement a mail discussion group.
managed hosting A Web hosting service in which the service provider manages the operation and oversight of all servers and assigns a dedicated service manager.
market A real or virtual space in which potential buyers and sellers come into contact with each other and agree on a medium of exchange.
marketspace A market that occurs in the virtual world instead of the real world.
masquerading See spoofing.
Merchant ID An account number from a merchant bank that allows a company to accept credit-card payments. Merchant banks establish bank accounts for the purpose of enabling companies to accept credit card payments. The merchant bank account allows a company to receive and process credit card transactions online and transfer money from the buyer's account to the seller's account.
META tag A special HTML tag that contains keywords that represent Web page content; these are used by search engines to build indexes. An HTTP tag which defines certain top-level information about the web page or web site. Usually contains keywords for search engines, a description of what the site contains in terms of subject matter and audience, can contain information about the author and tools used to create the page or site. Is one of the highest priority elements of a website when used in conjunction with search engines. Search engines typically weight the text found in the metadata tags higher than the text found in the actual contents of the pages.
micropayments Internet payments for items costing very little (usually 1 dollar or less).
minimum bid In an English auction, the price for an item at which the auctioning begins.
minimum bid increment The amount by which one bid must exceed the previous bid.
MILNET A part if the DDN network that makes up the Internet, centered on non-classified military communications.
MIME (Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions) Originally a standard for defining the types of files attached to standard Internet mail messages. The MIME standard has come to be used in many situations where one cmputer programs needs to communicate with another program about what kind of file is being sent. For example, HTML files have a MIME-type of text/html, JPEG files are image/jpeg, etc. Extensions to the Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) that allow the transmittal of non-text information (graphics, etc.) via e-mail. A standard Internet format for encoding files that are attached to electronic (e-mail) messages. \
mirror A duplicate of an FTP site. Generally speaking, "to mirror" is to maintain an exact copy of something. Probably the most common use of the term on the Internet refers to "mirror sites" which are web sites, or FTP sites that maintain copies of material originated at another location, usually in order to provide more widespread access to the resource. For example, one site might create a library of software, and 5 other sites might maintain mirrors of that library.
modem (MOdulator/DEModulator) A device that allows a PC to communicate and exchange information with other modem-equipped computers via telephone lines. Basically, modems do for computers what a telephone does for humans.
MOO -- (Mud, Object Oriented) One of several kinds of multi-user role-playing environments.
Mosaic It was essentially the first graphical WWW browser that was available for the Macintosh, Windows, and UNIX all with the same interface. Mosaic really started the popularity of the Web. The source-code to Mosaic was licensed by several companies and used to create many other web browsers. Mosaic was developed at the National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA), at the University of Urbana-Champagne in Illinois, USA. The first version was released in late 1993.
MPEG (Motion Picture Experts Group) A name for commonly used compressed, full-motion video files used on the Internet.
MP3 The file extension associated with MPEG audio layer 3 (MPEG-3). Layer 3 uses perceptual audio coding and psychoacoustic compression to remove redundant and irrelevant parts of a sound signal (parts the human ear doesn’t hear anyway). The result is that MP3 music signals are compressed to a size 1/12th the size of original with no noticeable loss of quality. (CD quality music is 1411.2 kilobits per one second of stereo music whereas MP3 music averages 112-128 kbps.) Because they are highly compressed, MP3 music files are easily transferred over the Internet, where they are traded regularly.
MUD (Multi-User Dungeon) A (usually text-based) multi-user simulation environment. Some are purely for fun and flirting, others are used for serious software development, or education purposes and all thatlies in between. A significant feature of most MUDs is that users can create things that stay after they leave and which other users can interact within their absence, thus allowing a world to be built gradually and collectively. Modeled on the original Dungeons and Dragons game, it is a group of role-playing games that have been used as conferencing tools and educational tools.
multimedia Documents or platforms that combine different kids of data (plain text, video, graphics, audio).
MUSE (Multi-User Simulated Environment) One kind of MUD - usually with little or no violence.
name A lexical string that is mapped to an IP address (e.g., cutl.city.unisa.edu.au).
name changing A frowned-upon activity that occurs when someone purposely registers misspelled variations of well-known domain names. These variants sometimes lure consumers who make typographical errors when entering a URL. Compare spoofing.
name stealing Theft of a Web site's name; occurs when someone, posing as a site's administrator, changes the ownership of the domain name assigned to the site to another site and owner.
NAP (Network Access Point) One of several major Internet interconnection points in the United States that serve to tie all the Internet access providers together. NAPs were created and supported by the National Science Foundation as part of the transition from the original U.S. government-financed Internet to a commercially operated Internet. Companies apply to use the NAP facilities and make their own inter-company peering arrangements. Much Internet traffic is handled without involving Naps, using peering arrangements and interconnections within geographic regions.
NCSA ( National Center for Supercomputing Applications) Hosted at the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, the NCSA is one of the five original centers in the National Science Foundation's Supercomputer Centers Program. Mosaic, the first Internet browser program and predecessor to the Netscape browser, was invented at NCSA.
net bandwidth The actual speed information travels, taking into account all the traffic that may be on the communication channel at any given time.
netiquette The etiquette on the Internet. Guidelines to good manners on the Internet -- for example, don't flame other users, don't leave your caps lock key on (that's like yelling), etc.
netizen Citizen of the Internet. Derived from the term citizen, referring to a citizen of the Internet or someone who uses networked resources. The term connotes civic responsibility and participation.
Netscape A WWW Browser and the name of a company. The Netscape (tm) browser was originally based on the Mosaic program developed at the National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA).
network A group of two or more computers linked together. Any time you connect 2 or more computers together so that they can share resources, you have a computer network. Connect 2 or more networks together and you have an internet.
network access points (NAPs) The four primary connection points for access to the Internet backbone in the United States.
network access providers The four companies (Pacific Bell, Sprint, Ameritech, MFS Corporaton) that are primary providers of Internet access rights; they sell these rights to smaller Internet service providers.
newsgroup The name for discussion groups on USENET. Collection of information and users who get together to communicate about one particular subject.
NFS (Network File System) Internet protocol used to share files among different hosts. A set of protocols that offers users access to other files on other networked computers as if they were local.
NIC (Network Information Center) An electronic site where users can hunt down information about specific capabilities of a network. NICs are customarily maintained by regional networks and by institutions. The US national NIC is backed financially by the National Science Foundation, and is called the InterNIC. Generally, any office that handles information for a network. The most famous of these on the Internet was the InterNIC, which was where most new domain names were registered until that process was decentralized to a number of private companies.
(Network News Transfer Protocol) The
Internet protocol used to transfer news using Usenet. The protocol used by client and server software to carry USENET postings back and
forth over a TCP/IP network. If you are using any of the more common software
such as Netscape, Nuntius, Internet Explorer, etc. to participate in newsgroups
then you are benefiting from an NNTP connection.
NOC (Network Operations Center) A site or group that is responsible for the daily care and maintenance of a network.
node Any single computer (or other peripheral) connected to a network.
NREN (National Research and Education Network) A US attempt to link networks operated by different federal agencies into a single high-speed network.
NTP (Network Time Protocol) A protocol used to synchronize time between computers on the Internet.
octet Alternative term for a set of eight bits (i.e., a byte).
ODBC (Open Database Connectivity) A dynamic-link library (DLL) file that Microsoft Query and Microsoft Excel can use to connect to a particular database. Each database program, such as Microsoft Access or dBASE, or database management system, such as SQL Server, requires a different driver. ODBC drivers make Microsoft Query flexible, so that you can connect to new databases, as they become available, by installing new drivers.
OLE (Object Linking and Embedding) A capability introduced with Windows 3.1 that gives all Windows applications a standard way of incorporating objects (i.e., text, graphics, or sound) created in other Windows programs. When you link an object between two documents, changes made to that object in one document automatically will be made in the other.
one-sided tag HTML tags that require only an opening tag (such as <P>, for new paragraph).
online Refers to the successful connection with another computer via telephone lines or through a network.
online community Synonymous with virtual community, which is an electronic gathering place for people with common interests.
open auction An auction in which bids are publicly announced.
open database connectivity (ODBC) A database protocol that makes it possible for a program to access data from an application, regardless of which database management system is dispensing the data.
Open Source Software Open Source Software is software for which the underlying programming code is available to the users so that they may read it, make changes to it, and build new versions of the software incorporating their changes. There are many types of Open Source Software, mainly differing in the licensing term under which (altered) copies of the source code may (or must be) redistributed.
online service A dial-up service that provides news, information, and discussion forums for users with modem-equipped PCs and the access software provided by the service. (Examples include: America Online, Prodigy, CompuServe, Genie, Delphi, and Global Network Navigator.)
OODB (Object Oriented Database)
open auction An auction in which bids are publicly announced.
opt-in e-mail The practice of sending e-mail messages to people who have requested information on a particular topic or about a specific product.
outsourcing The hiring of another company to perform design, implementation, or operational tasks for an information systems project.
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