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Programming Dictionary



Active Server Pages: A server based scripting language that is used to provide dynamic content and build database driven web sites where the browser may have no scripting at all.

ant: An open source Java-based Make tool.

API: A set of routines, protocols, and tools for building software applications.

Application Program Interface: API - A set of routines, protocols, and tools for building software applications.

ASCII: American Standard Code for Information Interchange - A set of 128 alphanumeric and special control characters. ASCII files are also known as plain text files.

ASP: Active Server Pages - A server based scripting language that is used to provide dynamic content and build database driven web sites where the browser may have no scripting at all.

Binary: A numbering system consisting of zeros and ones. A simple count from zero to decimal 10, in binary would be 0, 1, 10, 11, 100, 101, 110, 111, 1000, 1001, 1010.

Boolean: A branch of mathematics dealing with items which can only have two states - like on/off, yes/no. Most programming languages have Boolean variables which can represent these states and allow them to be manipulated with operators such as AND, OR, NOT. It can also be used to describe database searches which incorporate the idea of one condition AND another being met.

Boolean operator: On of the conjunctions used in a Boolean search; AND, OR, NOT). See Boolean.

CAD: Computer Aided Design- a computer drafting program.

CGI: Common Gateway Interface - CGI refers to programs that are used to produce on the fly content for browser delivery. Common CGI programming languages include Perl, C, and PHP.

CGI-BIN: One of the most common names for a directory on a web server that contains CGI files. These directories are often under heavier access controls than standard directories.

Clipboard: A temporary data holding area for storing info that is copied or moved from one application to another using the copy and paste and cut and paste menu options.

Cold Fusion: - A scripting language used on web pages to interface with Microsoft Access, dBASE, FoxPro, and Paradox databases.

Cookie: The name for files stored on your hard drive by your Web browser that hold information about your browsing habits, like what sites you have visited, which newsgroups you have read, etc. Many view 'cookies' as an invasion of privacy. These can be disabled within your browser internet options.

cXML: A set of XML tags defining the characteristics of an online sales transaction.

Dynamic Content: A page that is generated just as the user views it. The content delivered to the user is often updated on the spot out of a database or based upon the users browser. It used to be easy to spot one of these pages, but with most systems now allowing dynamic content from any page at any time, you just never know.

Dynamic Web Pages: Web pages which use the techniques and technologies of Dynamic Content. These pages are generated as required and so can contain variable information which if different depending on the user's input (i.e. database searches, member information).

Embedded SQL: Pass-through SQL - SQL statements that are written into high-level programming languages (ie. C or Pascal).

Extreme Programming: Software development following specific structures designed to simplify and speed the process of developing new software. Developed by Kent Beck, it utilizes 12 principles to ensure functionality.

Freeware: A program or software that the author makes available free to the public.

FrontPage: Microsoft FrontPage - A popular web site creation tool.

Gopher: A menu-based system for retrieving files from a server.

Handheld PDA: Personal Digital Assistant - A small computer, often Internet accessible, used to organize personal information and communicate. Data is entered using a keypad and/or a pen-like instrument, this information may be transferred to a desktop computer via cable or modem.

HDML: Handheld device markup language.

Header: The portion of a packet, preceding the actual data, containing source and destination addresses, and error checking and other fields. A header is also the part of an electronic mail message that precedes the body of a message and contains, among other things, the message originator, date and time.

HTML: Hyper Text Markup Language - A collection of tags typically used in the development of Web pages.

JavaScript: A language embedded within HTML that is executed after a page of HTML is transferred to a users browser.

JDK: Java Development Kit - A software tool package to write, test, and debug Java applications and Java server applets (JSP) created by Sun Microsystems.

MCF: Meta Content Format - A way to represent the content of a web site, in a much more sophisticated manner than can be done using the existing, commonly-used meta tags. For example, those using a MCF-enabled browser can view a 3D 'fly-through' map of a site, assuming the proper coding is in place. MCF has provisions that are supposed to make it easier for search engines to index web sites. For example, it could provide a site summary on a single page. The summary could provide URLs and descriptions of every page within a web site, saving the search engines from having to crawl and store all the pages from the site for searching purposes.

Meta Tags: Author generated HTML commands that are placed in the head section of an HTML document. Current popular meta tags that can affect search engine rankings are Meta Keywords, and Meta Description.

Microsoft FrontPage: A popular web site creation tool.

Passthrough SQL: Embedded SQL - SQL statements that are written into high-level programming languages (ie. C or Pascal).

PDA: Personal Digital Assistant - A small computer, often Internet accessible, used to organize personal information and communicate. Data is entered using a keypad and/or a pen-like instrument, this information may be transferred to a desktop computer via cable or modem.

Personal Digital Assistant: PDA - A small computer, often Internet accessible, used to organize personal information and communicate. Data is entered using a keypad and/or a pen-like instrument, this information may be transferred to a desktop computer via cable or modem.

Plug-ins: Software which adds functionality to an existing piece of software.

Program: A program or application runs on a computer. Programs perform tasks such as site creation, word processing, accounting, spreadsheets, database work, etc.

QuickTime: A sound and video compression and playback application used on the Internet.

Real time: Immediate. Operating systems require that information be displayed as soon as information is entered, this is real time delivery. The actual time that it takes for an image to be displayed, in animated graphics is referred to as real time if it is the same amount of time it would take to transpire in real life.

Server Side Includes: Commands that can be included in web pages that are processed by the web server when a user requests a file. Often used to insert common content into several different web pages, or to include the results of a CGI program on a web page.

Shareware: Software with limited functionality which is provided by the author so that it can be used for a limited time in hopes you will buy it. In some cases, unlimited free use.

Shockwave: A plug-in for animations and sounds to be played online in a compressed format so that they can be played back, even during receipt. Developed by Macromedia.

SQL: Structured Query Language - A specialized programming language used in database development. Most industrial-strength and many smaller database applications can be developed using SQL.

SSI: Commands that can be included in web pages that are processed by the web server when a user requests a file. Often used to insert common content into several different web pages, or to include the results of a CGI program on a web page.

Structured Query Language: SQL - A specialized programming language used in database development. Most database applications (large or small) can be developed using SQL.

Telnet: A protocol for logging onto remote computers from anywhere on the Internet.

Windows Socket: Winsock - An API, Application Programming Interface, for developing Windows programs that can communicate with other computers through TCP/IP protocol.

Windows XP: An operating system (OS) by Microsoft introduced in 2001. It is said to be the most important release of Microsoft since Windows 95. It is build on the Windows 2000 kernel. The prior version is known as Windows ME (Millennium).

Winsock: Windows Socket - An API, Application Programming Interface, for developing Windows programs that can communicate with other computers through TCP/IP protocol.

WML: Wireless markup language.

XML: Extensible markup language.

XP: Extreme Programming - Software development following specific structures designed to simplify and speed the process of developing new software. Developed by Kent Beck, it utilizes 12 principles to ensure functionality.

XP also applies to:
Windows XP: An operating system (OS) by Microsoft introduced in 2001. It is said to be the most important release of Microsoft since Windows 95. It is build on the Windows 2000 kernel. The prior version is known as Windows ME (Millennium).

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