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History Of MULTICS


Honeywell 6180 at MIT, 1974 Multics (Multiplexed Information and Computing Service) is a mainframe timesharing operating system begun in 1965 and used until 2000. Multics began as a research project and was an important influence on operating system development. The system became a commercial product sold by Honeywell to education, government, and industry. This web site describes the hardware, software, and people that made the system the best thing of its kind for many years.

1. What Is Multics?

1.1. Summary

Multics (Multiplexed Information and Computing Service) is a timesharing operating system begun in 1965 and used until 2000. The system was started as a joint project by MIT's Project MAC, Bell Telephone Laboratories, and General Electric Company's Large Computer Products Division. Prof. Fernando J. Corbató of MIT led the project. Bell Labs withdrew from the development effort in 1969, and in 1970 GE sold its computer business to Honeywell, which offered Multics as a commercial product and sold a few dozen systems.

Multics was introduced in a series of papers at the 1965 Fall Joint Computer Conference:

Many books and papers describe aspects of the system. The influence of Multics on Unix is described in chapter 3 of A Quarter centuryof UNIX, for example.

Multics runs on special expensive CPU hardware that provides a segmented, paged, ring-structured virtual memory. The system is a symmetric multiprocessor with shared physical and virtual memory. The operating system was programmed in PL/I.

Elliot Organick's book, The Multics System, an Examination of its Structure, describes the system as it was in about 1968. MIT started providing timesharing service on Multics to users in fall of 1969. GE sold the next system to the US Air Force, and the military use of Multics led to some of the system's security features. Honeywell sold more systems to government, and to auto makers, universities, and commercial data processing services.

In the 1980s, Multics became quite popular in France; Honeywell's partner Bull sold a total of 31 Multics sites. None are still in use.

Honeywell decided not to create a new hardware generation for Multics in the mid-80s and stopped developing the operating system. Subsequently, Honeywell sold its computer business to Bull, which also chose not to build new Multics hardware, and all sites replaced their Multics systems with more modern hardware.

1.2. Goals

As described in the 1965 paper Introduction and Overview of the Multics System by Corbató and Vyssotsky, there were nine major goals for Multics:

  • Convenient remote terminal use.
  • Continuous operation analogous to power & telephone services.
  • A wide range of system configurations, changeable without system or user program reorganization.
  • A high reliability internal file system.
  • Support for selective information sharing.
  • Hierarchical structures of information for system administration and decentralization of user activities.
  • Support for a wide range of applications.
  • Support for multiple programming environments & human interfaces.
  • The ability to evolve the system with changes in technology and in user aspirations.

1.3. Notable features

See the Multics Features FAQ for more information.

1.3.1. Segmented memory

The Multics memory architecture divides memory into segments. Each segment has addresses from 0 to 256K words (1 MB). The file system is integrated with the memory access system so that programs access files by making memory references.

1.3.2. Virtual memory

Multics uses paged memory in the manner pioneered by the Atlas system. Addresses generated by the CPU are translated by hardware from a virtual address to a real address. A hierarchical three-level scheme, using main storage, paging device, and disk, provides transparent access to the virtual memory.

1.3.3. High-level language implementation

Multics was written in the PL/I language, which was, in 1965, a new proposal by IBM. Only a small part of the operating system was implemented in assembly language. Writing an OS in a high-level language was a radical idea at the time.

1.3.4. Shared memory multiprocessor

The Multics hardware architecture supports multiple CPUs sharing the same physical memory. All processors are equivalent.

1.3.5. Multi-language support

In addition to PL/I, Multics supports BCPL, BASIC, APL, FORTRAN, LISP, C, COBOL, ALGOL 68 and Pascal. Routines in these languages can call each other.

1.3.6. Relational database

Multics provided the first commercial relational database product, the Multics Relational Data Store (MRDS), in 1978.

1.3.7. Security

Multics was designed to be secure from the beginning. In the 1980s, the system was awarded the B2 security rating by the US government NCSC, the first (and for years only) system to get a B2 rating.

1.3.8. On-line reconfiguration

As part of the computer utility orientation, Multics was designed to be able to run 7 days a week, 24 hours a day. CPUs, memory, I/O controllers, and disk drives can be added to and removed from the system configuration while the system is running.

1.3.9. Software Engineering

The development team spent a lot of effort finding ways to build the system in a disciplined way. The Multics System Programmer's Manual (MSPM) was written before implementation started: it was 3000 or so pages and filled about 4 feet of shelf space in looseleaf binders. (Clingen and Corbató mention that we couldn't have built the system without the invention of the photocopier.) High level language, design and code review, structured programming, modularization and layering were all employed extensively to manage the complexity of the system, which was one of the largest software development efforts of its day.

1.4. Influence on other systems

1.4.1. Unix

Ken Thompson and Dennis Ritchie, the inventors of Unix, worked on Multics until Bell Labs dropped out of the Multics development effort in 1969. The Unix system's name is a pun on Multics attributed to Brian Kernighan. Some ideas in Multics were developed further in Unix.

1.4.2. GCOS 6

Honeywell's GCOS 6 operating system for the Level 6 minicomputers was strongly influenced by Multics.

1.4.3. Primos

Prime's Primos operating system shows a strong Multics influence. Bill Poduska worked on Multics at MIT before founding Prime, and several other senior Multicians worked at Prime. Poduska referred to Primos as "Multics in a shoebox."

1.4.4. VOS

Stratus's VOS operating system shows a strong Multics influence. Bob Freiburghouse, former Multics languages manager, was one of the founders of Stratus; many Multicians are still Stratus employees. (Stratus is now called Stratus Technologies.)

1.4.5. Apollo Domain

[Frederick Roeber] Bill Poduska went on from Prime to help found Apollo, and Domain was known as "Multics in a Matchbox." Apollo's OS shows strong Multics influence. For instance, the basic access to stuff on disk is via a single-level store directly based on Multics. Supposedly some of the motivation for the object-store style of file system came from Multics too. [JHS] In addition, it uses a shared memory model, despite being distributed across a network. If that isn't Multics influence, I don't know what is.

1.4.6. NTT DIPS

[Carl Hoffman] NTT undertook a massive effort to clone Multics, which led to their DIPS (Denden Information Processing System) series of mainframes. DIPS machines are still in widespread use in Japan today by NTT, but everyone agrees that they are going away. I believe that Intermetrics developed the DIPS PL/I compiler for NTT.

[Jean Bellec] DIPS was an operating system developed by NTT and running on IBM S/370 clone machines built by Hitachi, Fujitsu and NEC. Sure, it was inspired by Multics, but was not a clone, or you would call every multi-user machine built after 1970 a Multics clone.

1.4.7. Amber

Multics also influenced Amber, the operating system produced by the S-1 project at Livermore between 1979 and 1986 or so. The original Amber group was familiar with Multics as users - the original development work was done on MIT-Multics - but I don't believe it included anyone who'd actually worked on the Multics kernel itself.

The most important Multics influences were writing the operating system in a high-level language, the single-level storage system, and an emphasis on security, although rings were not present on the last generation of S-1 machine. Amber was heavily influenced by critiques of Multics such as the Multics Kernel Redesign Project. In its later years, Amber made serious strides toward machine independence.

[Jay Pattin] The developers hoped to make it "Multics done better," as reported in a DATAMATION article. Jeff Broughton co-wrote the compiler for the Pastel language used for Amber.

1.4.8. GEMSOS

[Paul Karger] The Gemini GEMSOS secure operating system for the Intel architecture was developed by Roger Schell to support a Multics-style segmented environment in a system designed to meet A1 security requirements.

1.4.9. Other systems using rings

[Paul Karger]

Many other systems since Multics have also used rings including:

  • VME/B for the ICL 2900
  • AOS/VS for the Data General MV8000
  • VMS for the DEC VAX
  • the Hitachi 5020 time sharing system (first with hardware rings)

1.4.10. IBM systems

As for other systems influenced, TSS/360 was strongly influenced by Multics. And IBM's MVS eventuallyacquired dynamic reconfiguration to add processors and memory without shutting down.

[Jerry Saltzer] The IBM System/38 maps files into the one-level store just like Multics, and so does AIX, down underneath where it is hard to find because it is trying to pretend it is a Unix. Both of these systems are derivatives of IBM FS, which never saw the light of day, but which borrowed the file mapping/one-level-store idea from TSS/360, which in turn got it from Multics.

1.4.11. TENEX and TOPS-20

Multics influenced the paging design of TENEX and the DECSYSTEM-20, and several Multicians provided review and comment on the TENEX design. Dan Murphy has written a fine paper on the history of TENEX and TOPS-20, available online. In this paper he says:

Multics may be said to have contributed more than just the ideas for virtual memory organization and other specific capabilities. During the design of TENEX, we invited some of the Multics designers and implementors to review our progress and decisions. As is often the case, we had fallen into the trap of trying to do too much in a number of areas and had produced some designs that were quite convoluted and complex. Several people from Multics beat us up on those occasions, saying "this is too complicated -- simplify it! Throw this out! Get rid of that!" We took much of that advice (and could probably have taken more), and I credit these reviews with making the core capabilities significantly easier to understand and program, as well as to implement and debug.

Murphy has also posted the classic 1972 paper on TENEX by Bobrow, Burchfiel, Murphy, and Tomlinson.

1.4.12. Michigan Terminal System

MIT Comp Center and University of Michigan had close ties in the early 60s, and there was an informal group studying virtual memory in 1964 that included MIT and U of M researchers. The paper "Program and Addressing Structure in a Time-Sharing Environment," by Arden, Galler, and Westervelt (CACM, January 1966), was based on these discussions and especially on work by MIT professors Jack Dennis and Earl Van Horn. MIT and U of M participated in discussions with IBM about a virtual memory machine.

Susan Topol wrote an article on the history of MTS, available online.

1.4.13. Control Data NOS/VE

The CDC NOS/VE operating system provided a large paged, segmented virtual address space. Museum Waalsdorp has an interesting site which includes information on their CDC systems.

1.4.14. Honeywell GCOS7 (nee GCOS64) and NEC Acos4

[Jean Bellec] Multics strongly influenced the Honeywell Level 64 and its successors, the Bull DPS7 and DPS7000, and the derived NEC ACOS4 systems. Those systems used a segmentation mechanism and ring similar to Multics (although they were 32-bit machines instead of 64-bit). Their software used a segment per external procedure and a stack mechanism inspired by Multics.

GCOS64 was developed by Compagnie Honeywell-Bull in Paris (with Boston participation). It was bootstrapped from a 645 installed in 1972 and delivered in 1974. The implementation language was HPL, a subset of PL/I, that was running on Multics as SHPL. Multics also supported other tools for the GCOS64 factory such as a L64 linker and a hardware simulator and its environment (CLANG).

GCOS64/GCOS 7 uses a "microkernel" implemented by firmware that freeze the concept of threads (called process a la Multics), of semaphores for thread synchronization and I/O interface. GCOS7 is an evolutionary folow-on delivered in the early 80s. The microkernel mechanism has been easily extended to support up to 24 processors. Paging was introduced later on DPS7000 and segments were originally used for managing its virtual memory. The ACOS4 systems evolved by NEC from the original Honeywell Level64 include one of the most powerful mainframe systems, the ACOS3900.

1.4.15. HITAC 5020

The Hitachi 5020 system had two-dimensional addressing and rings. It was strongly influenced by Multics. Its descendant, Omicron, has a home page that includes early (1969 and 1971) papers on the 5020 system.

2. Multics today

2.1. Where can I get a Multics account today?

All Multics sites shut down as of 31 Oct 2000. Discussion of resurrecting Multics in alt.os.multics has not yet led to a revival of the system. If you want a Multics account, join the revival effort.

2.2. I'd like to see some Multics source. How?

Source for a few programs is available at this site, cross-refernced to the Glossary.

The intellectual property rights to the Multics software are owned by Group Bull. Bull HN Information Systems in Billerica, MA, USA is in charge of these rights.

2.3. Could Multics be ported to a modern micro?

Yes. As a matter of fact, several projects were started to try this in the 80s, as described in alt.os.multics. None of these projects finished. Porting Multics would be a big job and risky, and the final product would need further development to match current state of the art. Paul Green says, "I think it would be easier to try 'improving' existing technology than to resurrect Multics itself."

3. alt.os.multics

alt.os.multics is a USENET newsgroup for discussion of the Multics operating system. Discussion sometimes strays onto topics of interest to Multicians, e.g.

  • Honeywell hardware architecture
  • CTSS, DTSS and other ancestors
  • Honeywell management mistakes and if-onlys
  • PRIMOS, GCOS Timesharing, Unix, and other cousins and descendants

For discussions of the history of other operating systems, try alt.folklore.computers or the groups dedicated to these systems.

alt.os.multics is a public unmoderated newsgroup with an estimated readership of thousands. If you have a comment of limited interest, please use e-mail instead.

To receive alt.os.multics via mail, send email to majordomo@oakland.edu with the following line in the body of your message (please leave the Subject: line blank):

subscribe multics your_full_name <your_mail_address>

for example:

subscribe multics Jeff Marraccini <jeff@oakland.edu>

(some folks report trouble posting via this route)

Another option is Google's Groups service, which indexes USENET postings since the early 90s.

4. feb_wwide

The feb_wwide mailing list is for present and former employees of Bull, GE, Honeywell, and related companies. It focuses on computer history and preserving the story of past accomplishments. Apply to JBellec@compuserve.com for membership with a brief biography.

MULTIC Timeline

1959 John McCarthy proposes time-sharing in memo to Philip M. Morse, director of the MIT Computation Center.
1961 Burroughs B5000 (dual CPUs, segmentation)
05/62 Paper on CTSS presented at Spring Joint Computer Conference.
08/62 First Paper on Internet Concept by J. C. R. Licklider & Welden Clark, "On-Line Man Computer Communication".
09/62 BBN timesharing system operational on time-sharing system at Dartmouth begun by John Kemeny and Thomas Kurtz.
04/64 IBM announces System/360 (4/7/64)
05/64 DTSS brought up at Dartmouth on a GE-225/DATANET-30. (05/01/64, 4AM)
08/64 General Electric selected as supplier for MAC research machine.
11/64 Bell Labs joins Multics project with MIT and GE
11/65 Special Multics session at Fall Joint Computer Confence
08/65 GE 635 delivered to Project MAC, 6.36 simulator running
IBM announces TSS/360
06/66 Flag Day (06/14/66)
01/67 GE 645 delivered to Project MAC
03/67 GE 635 removed from Project MAC
milestone phase .5 (file system on simulator)
05/67 MTS in service at Michigan
09/67 PDP-10 announced
TENEX begun at BBN
12/67 milestone phase 1 (single process boot on 645)
03/68 milestone A3 - 3 processes
04/68 IBM decommits TSS/360
05/68 IBM releases CP/67 version 1 to 8 sites
07/68 First Multics picnic
08/68 RADC GE-645 installed
10/68 Demonstrable Initial Multics milestone (8 users)
12/68 console sessions in 545 Tech Sq
moved MAC 7094 to MIT IPC, building 39
01/69 Limited Initial Multics milestone (12 users)
01/69 Integrated mini-GIM & TTY DIM into system
04/69 Bell Labs drops out of Multics development
Unix begun on PDP-7 at Bell Labs
IBM un-decommits TSS/360
05/69 file system 2.0
06/69 milestone 3.0.10
07/69 Experimental MIT use of Multics (Cambridge Project)
10/69 MSS 4.0 - Multics public at MIT
new PL1 compiler, new traffic control
12/69 MSS 5.0 - DSU270's (10 MB disk)
03/70 MSS 6.0 - Revised command loop
MSS 7.0 - page control rewrite
DEC announces PDP-11 (3/28/70)
05/70 First Multics talk at GESHUA XI in Seattle (THVV)
Honeywell buys GE computer division: the "merger"
06/70 MSS 8.0 - pre-paging and post-purging
TENEX on the air June 15, 1970
08/70 MSS 9.0 - new Directory Control, User Control
Multics installed on RADC machine
10/70 MSS 10.0 - new ttydim
11/70 MSS 11.0 - new init
12/70 MSS 12.0 - Support for DSU170's
MSS 13.0 - Associative Memory fix
Unix ported to PDP-11 at Bell Labs
01/71 MSS 14.0 - Moved processes from ring 32 to ring 4
01/71 Multics Symposium at MIT Jan 21-22
04/71 MSS 15.0 - retrofit
05/71 IBM decommits TSS/360
09/71 MIT 645 Multics providing service on ARPANet (host #6) via GIMPSPIF.(RFC 0252)
1972 Paris 645 installed at Bull on Av. Gambetta
11/72 MIT 6180 delivered
System M "6090" installed.
12/72 MSS 18.0. - ACL redo: CACLs eliminated
01/73 Multics and H6180 announcement at Boston Museum of Science (01/17/73)
07/73 CTSS turned off at MIT IPC (07/20/73)
12/73 MIT 6180 Multics connected to ARPANet (host #44) by ABSI.
12/73 Thompson and Ritchie present Unix paper at ACM SOSP
1974 CISL development machine installed
01/74 MSS 22.0
Ford installed
05/74 GM Corporate (GMISCA) installed
06/74 MR 1.0: EIS, BASIC, GCOS Simulator, DSS191
1975 RADC, BCO, System M upgraded to 6180s
01/75 MR 2.0: CPU cache, NPS, 1600bpi tape, TN1200
03/75 MR 2.1: iox_, probe, debug, On-line T&D
06/75 MR 2.2: Secure Mail
09/75 MR 3.0: MCS, Scheduler, RCP, COBOL-74, SORT
1975 Ford deinstalled
07/75 University of Southwestern Louisiana installed
1976 USGS Reston installed
02/76 MSS 28.0: New storage system
03/76 MR 3.1: AIM, DTSS Simulator, HEALS, 4 FNPs
07/76 MR 4.0: New storage system, MRDS, MSU451
09/76 MR 4.0.1: Reconfiguration & Operator Interfaces
12/76 MR 5.0: 4MW SCUs
1977 Honeywell-MIT collaboration ends
USGS Menlo Park and Denver installed
Puerto Rican Highway Authority installed
Industrial Nucleonics installed
Apple Computer founded (01/03/77)
10/77 MR 6.0: tape, ESD, salvager, RJE, WORDPRO, 7 CPUs
1978 Ford installed again
INRIA/Rocquencourt installed
University of Grenoble installed
University of Calgary installed
03/78 MR 6.1
09/78 MR 6.5: Video Terminals, DN6670, IBM 3780
11/78 Palyn Report presented to Honeywell management
12/78 MR 6.5a
Oakland University (OU) installed
1979 INRA, Renault installed
01/79 Unix setuid patent issued (01/16/79)
01/79 CNO installed (01/22/79)
03/79 MR 7.0: GTSS Sim, TP, MSU0500, Tape Archive, T&D
06/79 MR 7.0a: L6 Conc, 9 Track tape, Emacs, VIP7760
1980 Stratus formed, many Multicians leave CISL
NWGS Level 68 development system installed at US Naval War College.
Dir. Prevision, EPSHOM, INSEE, IRT installed
03/80 MR 8.0: VIP7801/7804, IBM 3270, Process Preservation, ORION support, Bulk Store removed.
03/80 Site N (Flagship) installed 03/27/80.
12/80 MR 8.2: MSU0500/501, T&D, COBOL, PL/I, FORTRAN, BOS
1981 VW (USA) installed in Honeywell space
INSEE/Paris, CERAM, CICB, Culture, CICT, INRIA/Sophia installed
08/81 IBM PC announced (8/14/81)
09/81 St Johns installed
10/81 MR 9.0: DPS 8/70M CPUs, 8 FNPs, Executive Mail
12/81 Shutdown of Virginia Polytechnic Institute
1982 Bristol & Bath (Avon) installed;
DND Halifax installed (dual L68);
Bull Systeme X installed at Louveciennes (L68/DPS-8);
VW shut down, deal canceled by corporate; CIRIL, CNET, INRIA/Rennes, Mainz installed
03/82 MR 9.1: T&D, HASP, Emacs, FORTRAN, Tape
06/82 STC installed
07/82 PMDC moved from Camelback
10/82 MR10.0: 4 IOMs, IOM Paged Mode, Dial-out, X.25, Forum
11/82 Cardiff (CJCC) installed.
1983 SNECMA, CICRP, INNPPP, Credit Lyonnais, SOZAWE, ONERA/CERT, SNECMA, ELF, Brunel installed
USGS Menlo Park shut down
01/83 CNO gets 8/70M
03/83 UBCC installed
04/83 CCVR installed
06/83 Canadian DND (DDDS) installed
09/83 CISL moves from Tech Square to Cambridge Center
10/83 MR 10.1: Printers 901/1201, X.25 LAPB, Subsystem Utilities
1984 USGS Reston, Dir. Prevision, INSEE shut down
DOCKMASTER installed
01/84 MR 10.2: Satellite 6M, LINUS, FIPS FORTRAN
02/84 ACTC becomes additional development site (2/3/84)
06/84 Special for DND: IO reconfiguration
1985 Almost 100 sites (Gintell ACM speech)
USGS Denver, INRA, Renault, ELF shut down
ONERA/Paris installed
DND-H upgraded to triple 8-70M
02/85 Flower canceled by Honeywell
06/85 Multics development capped by Honeywell
MR 11.0: 32k Cache, FAMIS, Exec Forum, PC Support; 2741, 1050, and ARDS support removed
08/85 B2 Orange Book rating awarded to MR11.0+ by NCSC (08/29/85)
10/85 Black armbands at HLSUA
Multics Company spin-off (based on Flower) proposed at HLSUA
Initial study for NOS (Opus) with MOD-400 group
11/85 Spin-off dismissed by Honeywell
12/85 McDonnell Douglas installed
1986 EPSHOM, IRT, CERAM, INRIA/Sophia, Mainz, SOZAWE, Credit Lyonnais shut down
SEP installed
01/86 Opus (NOS/VS3) IPR-0 review at Honeywell
05/86 CISL closed (5/22/86), Opus team to Honeywell Billerica
07/86 NWGS DPS 8/70(M) installed at US Naval War College. Level 68 moved to SDF, Moorestown NJ, and got SMS workstations.
12/86 MR 12.0: BOS eliminated, IMU, FIPS tape & disk, C compiler.
1987 Shutdown of SNECMA, CICT
Bull Systeme X moved to Rocquencourt
NWGS TTGL (Dam Neck VA) and TTGP (San Diego) sites installed.
System M moved to DVCP
11/87 Bull takes over Honeywell computer division
12/87 Shutdown of CNO (12/11/87)
1988 Shutdown of INRIA, CICB, Culture, CIRIL, CNET, INNPPP, ONERA, Brunel
01/88 Shutdown of MIT Multics (MSS 38.3), eqpt to McDonnell (01/02/88)
04/88 Development transferred to ACTC (Calgary)
Opus canceled by Bull
05/88 Shutdown of AFDSC system T (05/31/88)
09/88 Shutdown of Brunel University
Shutdown of CICRP, Grenoble, Rennes
11/88 MR 12.2: lint and make; TCP/IP support and inter-system mail.
10/88 Shutdown of Bristol & Bath (Avon) (10/10/88)
09/89 Shutdown of St Johns (09/14/89)
Shutdown of RADC (09/30/89)
Shutdown of UBCC
12/89 MR 12.3
1990 Oakland University shut down
CCVR, SEP shut down
05/90 Shutdown of University of Southwestern Louisiana
12/90 MR 12.4
1991 Shutdown of ABB (formerly Industrial Nucleonics).
03/91 Shutdown of Cardiff Joint Computing Centre (03/15/91)
07/91 Shutdown of Loughborough University
Shutdown of ASEA Brown Boveri
1992 Shutdown of Bull Systeme X
02/92 Shutdown of AFDSC system D (02/28/92)
03/92 Shutdown of INRIA
Shutdown of AFDSC system M (03/31/92)
06/92 Shutdown of last AFDSC machine, system Z (06/30/92)
09/92 Shutdown of Site N (Flagship).
04/93 alt.os.multics started by Magnus Olsson
06/93 Shutdown of U of Calgary (06/16/93)
09/93 Shutdown of DDDS/ORAE (Ottawa, Ontario, Canada) (09/03/93)
11/93 Shutdown of Honeywell System M (Phoenix) (11/28/93)
12/95 Shutdown of McDonnell Douglas (12/22/95)
04/96 Shutdown of last NWGS system, at US Naval War College.
04/97 Shutdown of Ford (04/25/97)
03/98 Shutdown of DOCKMASTER (03/31/98) Hardware to the Computer Museum History Center.
10/98 Shutdown of GM (10/20/98)
07/00 Shutdown of CGI (was Perigon (was ACTC)) (07/07/00)
10/00 Shutdown of DND-H (17:08Z 10/30/00)

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